Transport Air Conditioning

Transport air-conditioning refers to air-conditioning found within the cabin of cars, lorries, buses and trains. The transport sector is particularly problematic in terms of emissions due to high leakage rates.

Cool technology options include CO2 and hydrocarbons. Though at the present there are no hydrocarbon based mobile air-conditioners sold on the OEM market for passenger cars, the use of hydrocarbons is technically feasible, as demonstrated by the large number of cars that have reportedly been converted from CFCs and HFCs to hydrocarbons. Refrigerants should only be used in equipment that has been designed for their use, to ensure efficiency and safe use. HFO-1234yf is being widely adopted in passenger car air-conditioning as an alternative to HFC-134a. However, HFO-1234yf and other HFOs are not considered Cool Technologies due to concerns over their long-term environmental impact. Some German car companies are using CO2 in a number of car series, based on concerns over the safety of HFO-1234yf. CO2 is expected to become a more attractive proposition as the electric car market grows.

Volkswagon

Volkswagon

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Car
Technology Type
MAC
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Volkswagon
Country
Germany
Energy Efficency

In 2013, Volkswagon, the world’s third largest carmaker, announced that the company plans to use CO2 as the refrigerant of choice in MACs. The decision by VW follows Daimler’s (November 2012) findings that the chemical refrigerant R-1234yf (HFO) is unsafe for use in its cars, and their decision to further invest in the development of CO2 mobile air conditioning. Volkswagon estimates that 3-5 years will be needed before the commercialization of CO2 MACs. Other companies exploring the CO2 option for MACs include: Audi, BMW and Porsche. 

TransAdelaide Bus Company

TransAdelaide Bus Company

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Technology Type
Dessicant
Refrigerant
Propane
Manufacturer
TransAdelaide Bus Company (now Operated By Torrens Transit)
Country
Australia
Energy Efficency

TransAdelaide Bus Company (now operated by Torrens Transit) in Australia installed hydrocarbon air conditioning in the drivers’ compartment, while the passengers’ compartment is cooled by desiccant cooling.

Website

Regie des Transport de Marseilles

Regie des Transport de Marseilles

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Technology Type
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Regie Des Transport De Marseilles
Country
France
Energy Efficency

In 2015, Regie des transport de marseille (RTm), a French bus line operator, began piloting the use of CO2 refrigerant in two of its new buses. The new system is said to benefit from improved thermodynamic properties, high volumetric cooling performance and good thermal transmission efficiency. It is expected that the use of this technology will extend the buses operating distance by 40% compared to a conventional R-134a system.

Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Train
Technology Type
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Faiveley / Konvekta
Country
Germany
Energy Efficency
Energy savings on the pilot trains have been around 10% compared to the R-134a systems used previously

Deutsche Bahn, a German railway company and Europe’s largest railway operator, aims to use natural refrigerants for air conditioning in new trains by 2020. The first DB Bahn train to be fitted with CO2 air conditioning was a Siemens VT642 train, in Chemnitz (Saxony) in 2016. Since then the company has carried out a few more projects with a CO2 air-cycle system.

BVG

BVG

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Technology Type
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Konvekta
Country
Germany
Energy Efficency

BVG is Germany’s largest local transport company. In 2010, the company installed CO2 air-conditioning in seven buses in Berlin. The A/C systems were provided by Konvekta. Most new city buses and all long-distance buses in Germany are equipped with A/C systems with an average HFC leakage of 13-14% a year, or a total of 140,000 tonnes of CO2 equivalent.

Valeo

Valeo

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Technology Type
Heat Pump
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Valeo
Manufacturer Country
France
Energy Efficency

French automotive company Valeo has launched a CO2 heat pump for cooling and heating buses.
The system is a modular, reversible, HFC-free heat pump that heats, cools and demists electric vehicle cabins.
The CO2 version can operate in temperatures as low as -20°

OKA

OKA

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
On/Off Road Vehicles
Technology Type
MAC
Refrigerant
Propane
Manufacturer
OKA
Manufacturer Country
Australia
Energy Efficency

OKA, the Australian manufacturer of on/off road vehicles is the first OEM in the world to use hydrocarbon refrigerant in their mobile air-conditioning systems. The company states that by adopting hydrocarbon refrigerant, OKA produces more efficient, more environmentally sustainable, less toxic and higher performance AC systems all at a lower price.

Konvekta CO2 Heat Pump

Konvekta CO2 Heat Pump

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Technology Type
Heat Pump
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Konvekta
Manufacturer Country
Germany
Energy Efficency

This heat pump is designed to offer air-conditioning for electric buses. Unlike other systems it doesn’t require an additional diesel heater to supply hot air.The company claims that the adaptability of the system enables optimum operating conditions for the battery, allowing an increase in range by up to 40%.

Konvekta

Konvekta

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Technology Type
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Konvekta
Manufacturer Country
Germany
Energy Efficency

Konvekta has had some success outside of Deutsche Bahn with CO2 MAC in buses in Germany and Austria. “The vehicles with CO2 in operation are roughly 100 vehicles,” Michael Sonnekalb of Konvekta.

Website

ECOLINE Transcritical

ECOLINE Transcritical

Sector
Components Compressors
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Bus
Ship
Trailer
Train
Transcritical
Technology Type
Reciprocating Compressor
Transcritical
Refrigerant
Carbon Dioxide
Manufacturer
Bitzer
Manufacturer Country
Germany
Energy Efficency

Semi-hermetic reciprocating compressors for transcritical CO2 applications

Website

ClimateWell

ClimateWell

Sector
Air Conditioning Transport
Application
Transit Vehicles
Technology Type
Refrigerant
Water
Manufacturer
ClimateWell
Manufacturer Country
Sweden
Energy Efficency

ClimateWell systems run using heat, water and glycol, and do not require a refrigerant. The systems are particularly well suited for transit vehicles, recreational vehicles and contruction vehicles as air-conditioning can be used while the engine is off.

Website