absorption cooling

Absorption systems use a heat source, such as natural gas, propane, or waste heat from a variety of processes, instead of electricity.


Chlorofluorocarbons are fluorinated compounds that were commonly used as refrigerants but have been banned by the Montreal Protocol because of significant damage to the ozone layer. They were replaced by HCFCs, which also deplete the ozone layer.


A compressor is a component in refrigeration and cooling equipment. It is a device used to pressurize gas (the refrigerant) to turn it into a liquid. In doing so, it acts as a pump that moves refrigerant through the refrigeration cycle and facilitates heat transfer.

desiccant cooling


evaporative cooling

Evaporative water coolers use heat in ambient air to evaporate water, which in turn cools the surrounding air.


An evaporator is a component in refrigeration and cooling equipment. Inside it, liquid refrigerant turns into a gas, and as it evaporates extracts heat from the air around it. The cooled air is then blown into the refrigerated or air-conditioned space.


Fluorocarbons, or F-gases, are a group of fluorinated compounds that include CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs. They have been commonly used as refrigerants but are also used for foam, fire protection, aerosols, solvents and other industrial uses. Many have been identified as ozone depleters and potent greenhouse gases.

foaming agents

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Global warming potential (GWP) measures the potency of a greenhouse gas over a specific period of time, relative to carbon dioxide (CO2), which has a GWP of 1. It is independent of a greenhouse gas’s atmospheric concentration i.e. it reflects its thermodynamic properties (how good it is at being a greenhouse gas) irrespective of how much of it is in the atmosphere.  For example, HFC-134a, the most commonly used HFC, has a GWP of 1430 when measured over 100 years, and 3830 when measured over 20 years. This means that the global warming contribution of HFC-134a, is 1430 or 3830 times greater than that of CO2 depending on the time metric used.


Hydrochlorofluorocabons are fluorinated compounds commonly used as refrigerants. They were adopted decades ago as replacements for CFCs because they did less damage to the ozone layer, but like CFCs are extremely potent greenhouse gases. They are being phased out by the Montreal Protocol but are still used heavily in many countries, especially developing countries, and in many cases are being replaced by HFCs, which are also greenhouse gases.


Hydrofluorocarbons are fluorinated compounds commonly used as refrigerants. Over the past twenty years they have become popular replacements for CFCs and HCFCs, which are being phased out by the Montreal Protocol because of damage to the ozone layer. While HFCs do not destroy ozone, they are potent global warming gases. The most common HFC, R134a, has a global warming potential 1,430 times greater than CO2.


Hydrocarbons are a group of naturally occurring compounds sometimes used as refrigerants. Popular hydrocarbon refrigerants include isobutane (R600a, often used in domestic refrigeration) and propane (R290, often used in commercial refrigeration). New hydrocarbon blends, such as R441a and R443a, are also on the market.

Natural refrigerant

Natural refrigerants refer to naturally occurring compounds that can be used in refrigeration and cooling equipment in place of synthetic, fluorinated compounds that often have potent ozone and/or climate impacts. Common natural refrigerants include carbon dioxide, ammonia, water, and hydrocarbons such as isobutane and propane.