Absorption cooling

Absorption systems use a heat source, such as natural gas, propane, or waste heat from a variety of processes, instead of electricity.


Chlorofluorocarbons are fluorinated compounds that were commonly used as refrigerants but have been banned by the Montreal Protocol because of significant damage to the ozone layer. They were replaced by HCFCs, which also deplete the ozone layer.


A compressor is a component in refrigeration and cooling equipment. It is a device used to pressurize gas (the refrigerant) to turn it into a liquid. In doing so, it acts as a pump that moves refrigerant through the refrigeration cycle and facilitates heat transfer.

Desiccant cooling

as the 
 The thermally driven cooling cycle is a combination of evaporative cooling with air dehumidification by a desiccant.

Evaporative cooling

Evaporative water coolers use heat in ambient air to evaporate water, which in turn cools the surrounding air.


An evaporator is a component in refrigeration and cooling equipment. Inside it, liquid refrigerant turns into a gas, and as it evaporates extracts heat from the air around it. The cooled air is then blown into the refrigerated or air-conditioned space.


Fluorocarbons, or F-gases, are a group of fluorinated compounds that include CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs. They have been commonly used as refrigerants but are also used for foam, fire protection, aerosols, solvents and other industrial uses. Many have been identified as ozone depleters and potent greenhouse gases.

Foam blowing agents

Blowing agents are used to create a cellular structure from liquid plastic resin, and in the case of foam used for insulation it functions as an insulating component of the foam.


Global warming potential (GWP) measures the potency of a greenhouse gas over a specific period of time, relative to carbon dioxide (CO2), which has a GWP of 1. It is independent of a greenhouse gas’s atmospheric concentration i.e. it reflects its thermodynamic properties (how good it is at being a greenhouse gas) irrespective of how much of it is in the atmosphere.  For example, HFC-134a, the most commonly used HFC, has a GWP of 1430 when measured over 100 years, and 3830 when measured over 20 years. This means that the global warming contribution of HFC-134a, is 1430 or 3830 times greater than that of CO2 depending on the time metric used.


Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are fluorinated compounds commonly used as refrigerants. They were adopted decades ago as replacements for CFCs because they did less damage to the ozone layer, but like CFCs are extremely potent greenhouse gases. They are being phased out by the Montreal Protocol but are still used heavily in many countries, especially developing countries, and in many cases are being replaced by HFCs, which are also greenhouse gases.


Hydrofluorocarbons are fluorinated compounds commonly used as refrigerants. Over the past twenty years they have become popular replacements for CFCs and HCFCs, which are being phased out by the Montreal Protocol because of damage to the ozone layer. While HFCs do not destroy ozone, they are potent global warming gases. The most common HFC, R134a, has a global warming potential 1,430 times greater than CO2.


 Hydrofluoroolefins are unsaturated HFCs. The HFO manufacturing process is energy-intensive and expensive, requiring fluorinated feedstocks and produces fluorinated byproducts (including HFC-23 with a GWP of 14,800) that contribute to ozone depletion and/or climate change.

The use of HFOs such as HFC-1234yf is associated with the formation of explosive gas mixtures and toxic hydrogen fluoride in the event of fire or explosion.[1]

 HFOs also break down into a persistent, non-biodegradable acid known as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).

 In addition, HFOs are significantly more expensive than HFC-134a, as much as 10 times more expensive. This is likely to spur illegal use of HFCs or even HCFCs  in the aftercare market, as they can often operate in the HFO systems, thus negating future climate benefits and resulting in illegal trade


Hydrocarbons are a group of naturally occurring compounds sometimes used as refrigerants. Popular hydrocarbon refrigerants include isobutane (R600a, often used in domestic refrigeration) and propane (R290, often used in commercial refrigeration). New hydrocarbon blends, such as R441a and R443a, are also on the market.

Natural refrigerant

Natural refrigerants refer to naturally occurring compounds that can be used in refrigeration and cooling equipment in place of synthetic, fluorinated compounds. Common natural refrigerants include carbon dioxide, ammonia, water, and hydrocarbons such as isobutane and propane.

Trifluoroacetic acid

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) accumulates in aquatic and certain forest ecosystems with potential toxic effects on plants and animals whose long-term implications are unknown. Some unsaturated HFCs (HFOs) release high levels of TFA when they degrade in the atmosphere.

TFA concentrations of 100 μg/litre are accepted as a safe ecotoxicity threshold.[1] However, uncertainty over the impact HFC-1234yf use will have on TFA levels remains as many studies do not account for the adoption of HFC-1234yf and other HFOs across a plethora of sectors and the bio accumulation of TFA, which does not easily degrade.