Air-Conditioning

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There is an immediate need for environmentally sustainable cooling technology. The cooling sector accounts for roughly 40% of global refrigerant demand and is exponentially growing in both industrialized and developing countries as we experience ever-increasing temperatures around the world because of global warming.

The cooling sector includes domestic, commercial and mobile air-conditioning, as well as cooling in some industrial manufacturing facilities. The vast majority of air-conditioners in the world, over 90%, are small systems of less than 15kW, such as window and portable air-conditioners. Others include single split type air-conditioners, multi-split type air-conditioners, ducted systems, and chillers.

There are many examples of chillers and traditional air-conditioning systems that use HCFC or HFC refrigerants being replaced by systems using natural refrigerants that reduce or eliminate global warming risks, such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons. In some cases, facilities instead opt for alternative technologies that do not use compression-cycle air-conditioning, such as desiccant and district cooling.

In the mobile sector, the European Directive requires automakers to transition away from high-GWP HFCs to more climate-friendly alternatives, while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides fuel-efficiency credit to automakers that use low-GWP refrigerants in their air-conditioning systems. The mobile sector is particularly problematic in terms of global warming emissions because it has a high annual leak rate of 10-15%. Because of this leak rate, the mobile sector accounts for 20% of all refrigerant emissions.

These are the following sectors in Cooling:

Domestic Commercial Industrial Mobile